Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Active Directory™ Programming

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Contents

  1. Advanced Security Programming in Java™ SE Authentication, Secure Communication and Single Sign-On
  2. Active Directory Client Extensions for Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT Workstation
  3. Server Roles
  4. Setting up your Development Environment
  5. JSI Tip 5454. How do I monitor performance in Active Directory?

Also, when you have a counter selected, you can view a description of that counter and tips on how to improve system performance by clicking the Explain button. When you are finished, click Close. The counters that you selected appear in the lower part of the screen. System Monitor displays each counter in a unique color. Note When creating a monitoring console for export, make sure to select Use local computer counters. Otherwise, System Monitor obtains data from the computer named in the text box, regardless of where the console file is installed. Hide comments. More information about text formats.

Text format Comments Plain text. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. Leave this field blank. Load More. The compressed size in bytes of compressed replication data inbound from directory system agents DSAs in other sites per second. The uncompressed size in bytes of compressed replication data inbound from DSAs in other sites per second. The uncompressed size in bytes of replication data that was not compressed at the source - that is, inbound from other DSAs in the same site per second.

The total number of bytes per second received through replication. It is the sum of the number of bytes of uncompressed data never compressed and compressed data after compression. The number of objects remaining until the full synchronization process is completed. The number of objects received per second through inbound replication from replication partners. The number of objects received per second from replication partners and applied by the local directory service.

This counter excludes changes that are received but not applied for example, when the update is already made. This counter indicates how many replication updates are occurring on the server as a result of changes generated on other servers. The number of objects received per second from replication partners that contained no updates that needed to be applied.

The number of object updates received in the current directory replication update packet that have not yet been applied to the local server. This counter tells you whether the monitored server is receiving changes, but is taking a long time applying them to the database. The number of changes per second to object properties that are applied through inbound replication as a result of reconciliation logic.

The number of changes per second to object properties received during the replication that are already made. The total number of changes per second to object properties received from replication partners. The number of values of object properties received per second from replication partners in which the values are for object properties that belong to distinguished names. This number includes objects that reference other objects. Values for distinguished names, such as group or distribution list memberships, are more expensive to apply than other kinds of values because a group or distribution list object can include hundreds or thousands of members.

In contrast, a simple object might have only one or two attributes. A high number from this counter might explain why inbound changes are slow to be applied to the database. The total number of values of object properties received per second from replication partners.

Each inbound object has one or more properties, and each property has zero or more values. A value of zero indicates that the property is to be removed. The compressed size in bytes of compressed replication data that is outbound to DSAs in other sites per second. The uncompressed size in bytes of compressed replication data outbound to DSAs in other sites per second. The uncompressed size in bytes of outbound replication data that was not compressed - that is, outbound to DSAs in the same site - per second. The total number of bytes sent per second. The number of objects per second acknowledged by outbound replication partners that required no updates.

This counter includes objects that the outbound partner did not already have. The number of objects sent per second though outbound replication to replication partners. The number of properties sent per second. This counter tells you whether a source server is returning objects or not. Sometimes, the server might stop working correctly and not return objects quickly or at all.

The number values of object properties sent per second , to replication partners in which the values are for object properties that belong to distinguished names. The total number of values of object properties sent per second , to replication partners. The number of changes to objects that have been received in the current directory replication update packet for the DRA that have not yet been applied to the local server.

A sharp decline in the rate at which objects are applied to the database indicates normal operation, while a gradual decline indicates that complex objects are being applied. This counter is a helpful gauge of whether a server is slow to replicate. The number of directory synchronizations that are queued for this server that are not yet processed.

This counter helps in determining replication backlog - the larger the number, the larger the backlog. The number of synchronization requests made to replication partners since computer was last restarted. The number of suboperations per second of security descriptor propagation. One operation of security descriptor propagation comprises many suboperations. There is approximately one suboperation for each object that the propagation operation causes the propagator to examine. The number of events of Security Descriptor Propagation that are queued but not yet processed.

The current number of threads in use by the directory service different from the number of threads in the directory service process. This counter represents the number of threads currently servicing API calls by clients, and you can use it to determine whether additional CPUs would be beneficial.

The number of sessions of connected LDAP clients. The time in milliseconds required for the completion of the last successful LDAP binding. The number of times per second that clients use a client ticket to this domain controller to authenticate to this domain controller. The number of NTLM authentications per second serviced by this domain controller.

The number LDAP bindings per second that occurred successfully. The number of search operations per second performed by LDAP clients. The percentage of page requests for the database file that were fulfilled by the database cache without causing a file operation.

If this percentage is too low, the size of the database cache might be too small. You can increase the size of the database cache by adding more RAM. The number of page faults per second that cannot be serviced because there are no pages available for allocation from the database cache. If this counter is nonzero most of the time, the clean threshold might be too low.

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Advanced Security Programming in Java™ SE Authentication, Secure Communication and Single Sign-On

The number of page requests per second for the database file that require the database cache manager to allocate a new page from the database cache. If this number is too high, the size of the database cache might be too small. The amount of system memory used by the database cache manager to hold commonly used information from the database file or files to prevent file operations.

If the size of the database cache seems to be too small for optimal performance and there is very little system memory available on the system, adding more RAM to the system might increase performance.

Active Directory Client Extensions for Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT Workstation

If there is plenty of system memory available and the database cache size is not growing, the database cache size might be restricted to an artificially low limit. The number of bytes that are read per second from the database file or files into the database cache. If this rate is too high, the size of the database cache might be too small. The number of bytes that are written per second to the database file or files from the database cache. The number of reads and writes issued by the database cache manager to the database file or files that the operating system is currently processing.

A large number of pending operations increases system throughput, but also increases the time required to process individual operations. Typically, a larger number means that file operations on the database file or files might be a bottleneck. The Start menu in Windows introduces personalized menus , expandable special folders and the ability to launch multiple programs without closing the menu by holding down the SHIFT key. A Re-sort button forces the entire Start Menu to be sorted by name.

The Taskbar introduces support for balloon notifications which can also be used by application developers. Windows Explorer introduces customizable Windows Explorer toolbars, auto-complete in Windows Explorer address bar and Run box, advanced file type association features, displaying comments in shortcuts as tooltips, extensible columns in Details view IColumnProvider interface , icon overlays, integrated search pane in Windows Explorer, sort by name function for menus, and Places bar in common dialogs for Open and Save.

Windows Explorer has been enhanced in several ways in Windows This feature was abused by computer viruses that employed malicious scripts, Java applets, or ActiveX controls in folder template files as their infection vector. The "Web-style" folders view, with the left Explorer pane displaying details for the object currently selected, is turned on by default in Windows For certain file types, such as pictures and media files, the preview is also displayed in the left pane.

However, such a previewer can be enabled in previous versions of Windows with the Windows Desktop Update installed through the use of folder customization templates. All Microsoft Office documents since Office 4. File shortcuts can also store comments which are displayed as a tooltip when the mouse hovers over the shortcut. The shell introduces extensibility support through metadata handlers, icon overlay handlers and column handlers in Explorer Details view. The right pane of Windows Explorer, which usually just lists files and folders, can also be customized.

For example, the contents of the system folders aren't displayed by default, instead showing in the right pane a warning to the user that modifying the contents of the system folders could harm their computer. It's possible to define additional Explorer panes by using DIV elements in folder template files. The Indexing Service has also been integrated into the operating system and the search pane built into Explorer allows searching files indexed by its database.

Server Roles

Microsoft released the version 3. Sparse files allow for the efficient storage of data sets that are very large yet contain many areas that only have zeros. Windows also introduces a Distributed Link Tracking service to ensure file shortcuts remain working even if the target is moved or renamed. The target object's unique identifier is stored in the shortcut file on NTFS 3. It allows any folder or drive on an NTFS volume to be encrypted transparently by the user. EFS works by encrypting a file with a bulk symmetric key also known as the File Encryption Key, or FEK , which is used because it takes less time to encrypt and decrypt large amounts of data than if an asymmetric key cipher were used.

To decrypt the file, the file system uses the private key of the user to decrypt the symmetric key stored in the file header. It then uses the symmetric key to decrypt the file. Because this is done at the file system level, it is transparent to the user. For a user losing access to their key, support for recovery agents that can decrypt files is built into EFS. A Recovery Agent is a user who is authorized by a public key recovery certificate to decrypt files belonging to other users using a special private key.

By default, local administrators are recovery agents however they can be customized using Group Policy. Windows introduced the Logical Disk Manager and the diskpart command line tool for dynamic storage.


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In addition to these disk volumes, Windows Server, Windows Advanced Server, and Windows Datacenter Server support mirrored volumes and striped volumes with parity :. With Windows , Microsoft introduced the Windows 9x accessibility features for people with visual and auditory impairments and other disabilities into the NT-line of operating systems.


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Windows included version 7. Microsoft published quarterly updates to DirectX 9. The majority of games written for versions of DirectX 9. Windows included the same games as Windows NT 4. Windows introduced the Microsoft Management Console MMC , which is used to create, save, and open administrative tools. Each console can contain one or many specific administrative tools, called snap-ins. In order to provide the ability to control what snap-ins can be seen in a console, the MMC allows consoles to be created in author mode or user mode.

User mode allows consoles to be distributed with restrictions applied. User mode consoles can grant full access to the user for any change, or they can grant limited access, preventing users from adding snapins to the console though they can view multiple windows in a console. Alternatively users can be granted limited access, preventing them from adding to the console and stopping them from viewing multiple windows in a single console.

The main tools that come with Windows can be found in the Computer Management console in Administrative Tools in the Control Panel. It also contains a service configuration console, which allows users to view all installed services and to stop and start them, as well as configure what those services should do when the computer starts. REGEDIT has a left-side tree view of the Windows registry , lists all loaded hives and represents the three components of a value its name, type, and data as separate columns of a table. REGEDT32 has a left-side tree view, but each hive has its own window, so the tree displays only keys and it represents values as a list of strings.

It is a command line utility that scans system files and verifies whether they were signed by Microsoft and works in conjunction with the Windows File Protection mechanism. It can also repopulate and repair all the files in the Dllcache folder. The Recovery Console is run from outside the installed copy of Windows to perform maintenance tasks that can neither be run from within it nor feasibly be run from another computer or copy of Windows Windows introduced Windows Script Host 2.

When users try to access a network share off the DFS root, the user is really looking at a DFS link and the DFS server transparently redirects them to the correct file server and share. Domain-based DFS roots exist within Active Directory and can have their information distributed to other domain controllers within the domain — this provides fault tolerance to DFS. DFS roots that exist on a domain must be hosted on a domain controller or on a domain member server.

A new way of organizing Windows network domains , or groups of resources, called Active Directory, is introduced with Windows to replace Windows NT's earlier domain model. Active Directory's hierarchical nature allowed administrators a built-in way to manage user and computer policies and user accounts, and to automatically deploy programs and updates with a greater degree of scalability and centralization than provided in previous Windows versions.

User information stored in Active Directory also provided a convenient phone book-like function to end users. Active Directory domains can vary from small installations with a few hundred objects, to large installations with millions. Active Directory can organise and link groups of domains into a contiguous domain name space to form trees.

Groups of trees outside of the same namespace can be linked together to form forests. Active Directory services could always be installed on a Windows Server, Advanced Server, or Datacenter Server computer, and cannot be installed on a Windows Professional computer.

However, Windows Professional is the first client operating system able to exploit Active Directory's new features. As part of an organization's migration, Windows NT clients continued to function until all clients were upgraded to Windows Professional, at which point the Active Directory domain could be switched to native mode and maximum functionality achieved. There should be one or more domain controllers to hold the Active Directory database and provide Active Directory directory services.

Along with support for simple, spanned and striped volumes, the server family of Windows also supports fault-tolerant volume types. The types supported are mirrored volumes and RAID-5 volumes :. Windows can be deployed to a site via various methods. It can be installed onto servers via traditional media such as CD or via distribution folders that reside on a shared folder.

Installations can be attended or unattended.

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During a manual installation, the administrator must specify configuration options. Unattended installations are scripted via an answer file , or a predefined script in the form of an INI file that has all the options filled in. An answer file can be created manually or using the graphical Setup manager. The Winnt. The ability to slipstream a service pack into the original operating system setup files is also introduced in Windows The Sysprep method is started on a standardized reference computer — though the hardware need not be similar — and it copies the required installation files from the reference computer to the target computers.

The hard drive does not need to be in the target computer and may be swapped out to it at any time, with the hardware configured later. Sysprep allows the duplication of a disk image on an existing Windows Server installation to multiple servers. This means that all applications and system configuration settings will be copied across to the new installations, and thus, the reference and target computers must have the same HALs , ACPI support, and mass storage devices — though Windows automatically detects " plug and play " devices.

The primary reason for using Sysprep is to quickly deploy Windows to a site that has multiple computers with standard hardware. Systems Management Server can be used to upgrade multiple computers to Windows These must be running Windows NT 3. Using SMS allows installations over a wide area and provides centralised control over upgrades to systems.

Setting up your Development Environment

Remote Installation Services RIS are a means to automatically install Windows Professional and not Windows Server to a local computer over a network from a central server. Images do not have to support specific hardware configurations and the security settings can be configured after the computer reboots as the service generates a new unique security ID SID for the machine.

This is required so that local accounts are given the right identifier and do not clash with other Windows Professional computers on a network. The remote computer must also meet the Net PC specification. Microsoft released various editions of Windows for different markets and business needs: Professional, Server, Advanced Server and Datacenter Server.

Each was packaged separately. Windows Professional was designed as the desktop operating system for businesses and power users. It is the client version of Windows It offers greater security and stability than many of the previous Windows desktop operating systems.

Windows Server shares the same user interface with Windows Professional, but contains additional components for the computer to perform server roles and run infrastructure and application software. This also provided a purely transitive-trust relationship between Windows domains in a forest a collection of one or more Windows domains that share a common schema , configuration, and global catalog , being linked with two-way transitive trusts.

Windows Advanced Server is a variant of Windows Server operating system designed for medium-to-large businesses. Windows Datacenter Server is a variant of Windows Server designed for large businesses that move large quantities of confidential or sensitive data frequently via a central server. System requirements are similar to those of Windows Advanced Server, [] however they may need to be higher to scale to larger infrastructure. Windows Datacenter Server was released to manufacturing on August 11, [] and launched on September 26, Windows has received four full service packs and one rollup update package following SP4, which is the last service pack.

JSI Tip 5454. How do I monitor performance in Active Directory?

Internet Explorer 5. Microsoft had originally intended to release a fifth service pack for Windows , but Microsoft cancelled this project early in its development, and instead released Update Rollup 1 for SP4, a collection of all the security-related hotfixes and some other significant issues. Microsoft states that this update will meet customers' needs better than a whole new service pack, and will still help Windows customers secure their PCs, reduce support costs, and support existing computer hardware.

Several of Windows 's components are upgradable to newer versions, as well as components introduced in later versions of Windows. These include:. During the Windows period, the nature of attacks on Windows servers changed: more attacks came from remote sources via the Internet. This has led to an overwhelming number of malicious programs exploiting the IIS services — specifically a notorious buffer overflow tendency. Many unneeded services are installed and enabled, and there is no active local security policy.

On September 8, , Microsoft skipped patching two of the five security flaws that were addressed in the monthly security update, saying that patching one of the critical security flaws was "infeasible. To do so would require re-architecting a very significant amount of the Microsoft Windows Service Pack 4 operating system, [ The Windows family of operating systems moved from mainstream support to the extended support phase on June 30, Microsoft says that this marks the progression of Windows through the Windows lifecycle policy.

Under mainstream support, Microsoft freely provides design changes if any, service packs and non-security related updates in addition to security updates, whereas in extended support, service packs are not provided and non-security updates require contacting the support personnel by e-mail or phone. Under the extended support phase, Microsoft continued to provide critical security updates every month for all components of Windows including Internet Explorer 5.

Because of Windows 's age, updated versions of components such as Windows Media Player 11 and Internet Explorer 7 have not been released for it.


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In the case of Internet Explorer, Microsoft said in that, "some of the security work in IE 7 relies on operating system functionality in XP SP2 that is non-trivial to port back to Windows Microsoft has dropped the upgrade path from Windows and earlier to Windows 7. Users of Windows must buy a full Windows 7 license. Although Windows is the last NT-based version of Microsoft Windows which does not include product activation , Microsoft has introduced Windows Genuine Advantage for certain downloads and non-critical updates from the Download Center for Windows Windows reached the end of its lifecycle on July 13, It will not receive new security updates and new security-related hotfixes after this date.

Microsoft Office products under Windows have their own product lifecycles. IDC's report is based on telephone interviews of IT executives and managers of North American companies in which they determined what they were using for a specific workload for file, print, security and networking services. IDC determined that the four areas where Windows had a better TCO than Linux — over a period of five years for an average organization of employees — were file, print, network infrastructure and security infrastructure. The report also found that the greatest cost was not in the procurement of software and hardware, but in staffing costs and downtime.

The report stated that Linux servers had less unplanned downtime than Windows servers. It found that most Linux servers ran less workload per server than Windows servers and also that none of the businesses interviewed used 4-way SMP Linux computers. The report also did not take into account specific application servers — servers that need low maintenance and are provided by a specific vendor.

The report did emphasize that TCO was only one factor in considering whether to use a particular IT platform, and also noted that as management and server software improved and became better packaged the overall picture shown could change. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Windows Millennium Edition. It is the main hub for configuring Windows network services. Closed-source Source-available through Shared Source Initiative [1]. See also: History of Microsoft Windows. Main article: NTFS. Main article: Encrypting File System. Main article: Logical Disk Manager.

Main article: Multilingual User Interface. Main article: Recovery Console. Main article: Windows Script Host. Main article: Distributed File System Microsoft. Main article: Active Directory. March Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved February 17, News Center. December 15, Retrieved February 14, February 17, Archived from the original on March 2, October 27, Archived from the original on January 12, August 17, Archived from the original on May 8, Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on October 24, March 24, Archived from the original on December 17, Archived from the original on February 18, Global Development and Computing Portal.

Archived from the original on February 3, January 17, Software Engineering Institute. July 19, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved May 17, USA Today.